Intellectual Property and Legal

I wrote or drew up almost all of this stuff myself. Where I didn't, it's either obvious, as in a link to another page, or credited to the originator. Some things, like the concepts of toner transfer DIY packages and HTML based debugging manuals originated with me as far as I can find out. As it turns out, I probably should have patented that last one.

I've made a faithful effort to attribute the things I didn't originate to the proper authors or owners. To the best of my knowledge, I'm not infringing anyone's copyrights or trademarks, as I've made a real effort not to do that. If you believe that material on GEO is infringing another person's copyright or trademark, please let me know so this can be sorted out. It is GEO's policy and practice not to infringe.

I've also had a number of instances of people making copies and passing parts of my work off as their own, or copying a page and merely inserting it into their web pages. Please don't do that. 

You're welcome to place links to my page if you like as long as such links do not present the impression when the link is activated that the material is not my work. 


All the material on this web site not otherwise attributed is copyrighted, and the rights are owned by R.G. Keen. All rights are reserved. This work is presented on this web page for individual, personal, and non-commercial use. No portion of this work may be copied or reproduced by any means whatsoever without written permission of the copyright holder.

Permission is granted for links to this page from other pages; however, making local copies of this information and reposting it without written permission is a violation of both US and international copyright, as is linking to the material in such a manner that it appears to be from another source. All of the original content at GEO has now been digitally watermarked and registered with the US Copyright Office. This enables specific legal remedies for infringement under US and international copyright law as well as making very clear who wrote or drew what when. This took a lot of time I didn't want to take and will be an annoyance in the future, but my recent experiences proved it necessary.

For information and inquiries on republication rights, please contact the author R.G. Keen by email at the ID "keen" at the service provider "".


A lot of the things I talk about in this set of pages, such as effects names or amp names are trademarks, registered or otherwise. I don't own them. They are owned by their respective owners. In some cases, who the current owner is may not be clear. The older effects names may have been bought and resold several times in some cases. None of the things I have here should be confused with the commercial products that the owners of the trademarks may be selling today. They are not the same, and I have no intent to present them as being the same. I use the terms as a shorthand reference to avoid typing out every time "this is a circuit that is similar or the same as the original vintage thing that used to be sold as such-and-such... this may or may not be the same as the re-issued effect that is sold under that same name today...". The trademarks are the property of their respective owners. If you believe that any of the material at GEO is infringing your trademark rights, be assured that it is inadvertent and will be removed or modified upon request.


To the best of my knowledge, none of the information here violates patent rights. Some of the information was at one time the subject of a patent, but analog effects having had their heyday about 30 years ago, these patents have in general expired. I have not done a patent search on all items, so I may be mistaken in some limited cases . If you know that to be true, please contact me so I can correct the problem. It is not my intent to infringe legal, current patents.

This information is intended to be used by tinkerers who want to build or modify their own effects for education or musical purposes, especially effects that may not be being made any longer or are so rare and valuable as to be unavailable, not just as a way to avoid buying a commercial effect. Beyond that, as I point out in the Guitar Effects FAQ, this is not likely to be a successful thing anyway, as the cost of individual parts to (re)make a clone of an effect is usually as much as buying the commercial equivalent. Please don't make these things and then try to pass them off as the work of the trademark owners.